Second the spiritual reform closely linked to evangelical Christianity, including both the Nonconformist sects, such as the Methodists, and especially the evangelical or Low Church element in the established Church of England, typified by Lord Shaftesbury — Worriers repeatedly detected threats that had to be dealt with: At the same time sugar consumption in the British diet increased, greatly increasing instances of tooth decay.
Economy, industry and trade Further information: George Hudson — became the "railway king" of Britain. Fanque also stands out as a black man who achieved great success and enjoyed great admiration among the British public only a few decades after Britain had abolished slavery.
After this, Bazalgette designed the Thames Embankment which housed sewers, water pipes and the London Underground. Employers typically were paternalistic and generally recognised the trade unions. After this, Bazalgette designed the Thames Embankment which housed sewers, water pipes and the London Underground.
Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have also created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have also been defences of it. Britain was the leading world centre for advanced engineering and technology.
The number of children shrank, allowing much more attention to be paid to each child.
A great engineering feat in the Victorian Era was the sewage system in London. Religion was a battleground during this era, with the Nonconformists fighting bitterly against the established status of the Church of England, especially regarding education and access to universities and public office.
This psychological conflict may be responsible for the two radically different Scrooges in the tale—one a cold, stingy and greedy semi-recluse, the other a benevolent, sociable man. Penalties on Roman Catholics were mostly removed. Frith 's depiction of Paddington railway station in London.
Byrates had fallen to a penny a ton mile for coal, at speeds of up to fifty miles an hour. On his first run, his locomotive pulled 38 freight and passenger cars at speeds as high as 12 miles per hour.
While the public eagerly bought the later books, the reviewers were highly critical of the stories. This sketch is from an issue of Punchprinted in November that year. Large numbers travelling to quiet fishing villages such as WorthingMorecambe and Scarborough began turning them into major tourist centres, and people like Thomas Cook saw tourism and even overseas travel as viable businesses.
While Dickens's Victorian audiences would have viewed the tale as a spiritual but secular parable, in the early 20th century it became a children's story, read by parents who remembered their parents reading it when they were younger. Background[ edit ] Dickens at the blacking warehouse, as envisioned by Fred Barnard The writer Charles Dickens was born to a middle class family which got into financial difficulties as a result of the spendthrift nature of his father John.
Second the spiritual reform closely linked to evangelical Christianity, including both the Nonconformist sects, such as the Methodists, and especially the evangelical or Low Church element in the established Church of England, typified by Lord Shaftesbury — Her reign lasted for 63 years and seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors.
The permanent structure sustained three fires but as an institution lasted a full century, with Andrew Ducrow and William Batty managing the theatre in the middle part of the century. George Hudson — became the "railway king" of Britain.
Ross championed agnosticism in opposition not so much to Christianity, but to atheism, as expounded by Charles Bradlaugh  The term "atheism" never became popular. Inthe Great Famine began to cause mass starvation, disease and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration;  To allow more cheap food into Ireland, the Peel government repealed the Corn Laws.
He wrote that A Christmas Carol was "a national benefit and to every man or woman who reads it, a personal kindness". Technology, science and engineering The railways changed communications and society dramatically The Victorians were impressed by science and progress and felt that they could improve society in the same way as they were improving technology.
The treadmill and the Poor Law are in full vigour, then. This made their work highly attractive to the middle-class women who bought the novels and the serialized versions that appeared in many magazines.
The recognized identities were those of daughter, wife, mother, and widow. Victorian literature In prosethe novel rose from a position of relative neglect during the s to become the leading literary genre by the end of the era.
Also incivil registration of births, deaths, and marriages was taken from the hands of local parish officials and given to local government registrars. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell.
It was a parliamentary report exposing the effects of the Industrial Revolution upon working class children. Bythere were 13, locomotives which each carried 97, passengers a year, or 31, tons of freight.
Trevelyan similarly called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". And the Union workhouses. They developed new and more efficient and less expensive techniques.
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